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Abstract

The fears of invasion voiced by the residents of south-central Pennsylvania prior to the Gettysburg Campaign are often the subject of ridicule in books and articles written on the battle. But to appreciate the events that occurred during the summer of 1863, it is necessary to understand how the citizens were affected by the constant rumors of invasion during the first two years of the war. And although there were many such scares prior to the battle, nothing reached the level of anxiety that was felt during the first few days of the war. On Monday morning, April 15, 1861, following the surrender of Fort Sumter, Abraham Lincoln issued a proclamation calling for 75,000 volunteers from the loyal states to suppress the Rebellion so as to "maintain the honor, the integrity, and existence of our national Union." [excerpt]

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