The claims to universality advanced by the medieval Church brought it into close relationship with an ancient human institution: the state. Especially after the fourth century, when it was first recognized and then given status as the only legal religious body, it was necessary for the Church to formulate a set of poliyical principles, comparable to those for economic activity, which could then be applied to the many and continuing relations between church and state. The general outline of these principles was completed by 500 and was transmitted to the Middle Ages. [excerpt]
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Bloom, Robert L. et al. "7. The Two Swords in Theory and Practice. Pt. III: The Medieval Church." Ideas and Institutions of Western Man (Gettysburg College, 1958), 65-72.