Contemporary with Luther and Calvin, there were once again powerful constructive forces at work within the Roman Catholic church. A reformed and rededicated papacy, a revived and purified clergy, a militant spearhead in the Jesuits, and an unequivocal statement of doctrine at the Council of Trent not only contained and turned back the Protestant tide, but also helped the Roman Catholic church become once more a dynamic force in Western Civilization. What happened in the Roman Catholic West during the sixteenth century has frequently been called the Counter Reformation. This term is not altogether accurate, since Catholic revival was only partially inspired by the Protestant movement, and only a portion of its effort was directed against Protestantism. [excerpt]
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Bloom, Robert L. et al. "6. Catholic Revival and Counter Reformation. Pt. VII: The Protestant Movement." Ideas and Institutions of Western Man (Gettysburg College, 1958), 63-71.