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Psychology is the scientific study of the behavior of organisms, particularly the processes involved in the complex organization of these organisms as individuals. The processes are studied from the analytic biochemical view (overlapping physiology) to the broad view of the effect of group activities on individual behavior (overlapping sociology). [excerpt]

Additional Resources

The excerpt from Harlow's article in Scientific American 181 (August 1949) has been removed due to copyright restrictions. You can access the journal issue here.


This is a part of Section XXI: Meaning in the Social Sciences. The Contemporary Civilization page lists all additional sections of Ideas and Institutions of Western Man, as well as the Table of Contents for both volumes.

More About Contemporary Civilization:

From 1947 through 1969, all first-year Gettysburg College students took a two-semester course called Contemporary Civilization. The course was developed at President Henry W.A. Hanson’s request with the goal of “introducing the student to the backgrounds of contemporary social problems through the major concepts, ideals, hopes and motivations of western culture since the Middle Ages.”

Gettysburg College professors from the history, philosophy, and religion departments developed a textbook for the course. The first edition, published in 1955, was called An Introduction to Contemporary Civilization and Its Problems. A second edition, retitled Ideas and Institutions of Western Man, was published in 1958 and 1960. It is this second edition that we include here. The copy we digitized is from the Gary T. Hawbaker ’66 Collection and the marginalia are his.

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