Of all the churches, the Roman Catholic was most seriously threatened by the French Revolution. Characteristically, she associated herself with the traditional monarchs and supported the rule of legitimate lords, be they bishops or kings, against the rising tide of liberty, equality, and fraternity. As these liberal democratic ideas became more and more popular, the Roman Catholic church became more and more defensive. This defense made popular an old movement for complete centralization of power in the papacy, a movement called ultramontanism, which saw its fulfillment in the decisions of the Vatican Council (1869-1870). [excerpt]
This is the publisher's version of the work. This publication appears in Gettysburg College's institutional repository by permission of the copyright owner for personal use, not for redistribution.
Bloom, Robert L. et al. "1. Main Movements and Thought Patterns of the Churches since the French Revolution. Pt. XXIII: Theological Meaning." Ideas and Institutions of Western Man (Gettysburg College, 1958), 1-3.