Throughout the Middle Ages, and indeed until quite recent times, Europe's economy was primarily agrarian. From the eleventh century onward however, commerce followed by manufacturing and urbanization, became increasingly characteristic of Western Europe's society. But the old made way for the new so slowly that the shift may be clearly discerned only through the lengthened perspective of the years. [excerpt]
This is the publisher's version of the work. This publication appears in Gettysburg College's institutional repository by permission of the copyright owner for personal use, not for redistribution.
Bloom, Robert L. et al. "1. The Revival of Commerce. Pt. V: The Rise of Capitalism and the National State to 1500." Ideas and Institutions of Western Man (Gettysburg College, 1958), 2-7.