Physical origin of DNA condensation by multivalent cations remains unsettled. Here, we report quantitative studies of how one DNA-condensing ion (Cobalt3+ Hexammine, or Co3+Hex) and one nonDNA-condensing ion (Mg2+) compete within the interstitial space in spontaneously condensed DNA arrays. As the ion concentrations in the bath solution are systematically varied, the ion contents and DNA-DNA spacings of the DNA arrays are determined by atomic emission spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction, respectively. To gain quantitative insights, we first compare the experimentally determined ion contents with predictions from exact numerical calculations based on nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equations. Such calculations are shown to significantly underestimate the number of Co3+Hex ions, consistent with the deficiencies of nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann approaches in describing multivalent cations. Upon increasing the concentration of Mg2+, the Co3+Hex-condensed DNA array expands and eventually redissolves as a result of ion competition weakening DNA-DNA attraction. Although the DNA-DNA spacing depends on both Mg2+ and Co3+Hex concentrations in the bath solution, it is observed that the spacing is largely determined by a single parameter of the DNA array, the fraction of DNA charges neutralized by Co3+Hex. It is also observed that only ∼20% DNA charge neutralization by Co3+Hex is necessary for spontaneous DNA condensation. We then show that the bath ion conditions can be reduced to one variable with a simplistic ion binding model, which is able to describe the variations of both ion contents and DNA-DNA spacings reasonably well. Finally, we discuss the implications on the nature of interstitial ions and cation-mediated DNA-DNA interactions.
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Qiu, Xiangyun, et al. "Ion Competition in Condensed DNA Arrays in the Attractive Regime." Biophysical Journal 105.4 (August 2013), 984–992.
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