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Among the many different research methods available naturalistic observation is one of the oldest forms. In this paper advantages and disadvantages of naturalistic observation will be discussed, followed by observations of two preschool children to determine which developmental stage they place in Piaget’s cognitive development theory. The results found that each child fit within Piaget's cognitive development theory with each exhibiting different spheres of the preoperational stage. Further research could look at gender differences or certain behavioral incidences only.