Measurements of the global conformation of macromolecules can be carried out using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Glass focusing capillaries, manufactured at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), have been successfully employed for SAXS measurements on the heme protein cytochrome c. These capillaries provide high X-ray flux into a spot size of tens of micrometres, permitting short exposures of small-volume samples. Such a capability is ideal for use in conjunction with microfluidic mixers, where time resolution may be determined by beam size and sample volumes are kept small to facilitate mixing and conserve material.
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Lamb J, Cornaby S, Pollack L, et al. Focusing capillary optics for use in solution small-angle X-ray scattering. Journal Of Applied Crystallography. February 2007;40(1):193-195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S0021889806044505
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