Class Year


Document Type

Student Research Paper

Date of Creation

Spring 2023

Department 1



After the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, the Wehrmacht occupied much of the western Soviet regions. The Third Reich deployed special killing squads known as the Einsatzgruppen to protect its military and ideological interests. These units were responsible for murdering over two million Jews from 1941 to 1944, primarily through mass shootings. Ukraine was one of the most afflicted countries by this “Holocaust by Bullets.” Because of the efficient genocidal techniques of Einsatzgruppen units operating in the region, one in four Jews who perished in the Holocaust was Ukrainian. The scale on which these killings was perpetrated demonstrates that the Holocaust by Bullets was a significant part of the Nazi extermination of European Jewry.


Written for HIST 418: Nazism.