Class Year


Document Type

Student Research Paper

Date of Creation

Fall 2023


Science, especially the field of geology, cannot be separated from culture. Through an examination of six different philosophies of science and relevant case studies, this work will highlight how foundational geologists created and developed their theories in order to align with cultural constructs, specifically religion. As technology progressed and competing viewpoints arose, the field of geology has become more and more complex since the 17th century. Therefore, this piece will conclude with an explanation of my own philosophy of science. This methodology aims to reconstruct our cultural cognitions regarding science, creating a method which acknowledges biases in the science based on our values, socioeconomic status, race, and gender.


Written for PHIL 233: Philosophy of Science.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 License.