Class Year


Document Type

Student Research Paper

Date of Creation

Spring 2013

Department 1

Globalization Studies


In 1986, the Vietnamese government undertook a series of reforms known as doi moi. These reforms were mainly economic adjustments that encouraged globalization through capitalism, international trade, and foreign investment. They restructured Vietnam’s economy from a centrally-planned system to a market economy with a socialist orientation. This study focuses on the political and cultural aspects of globalization after doi moi, and analyzes the development of international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) in Vietnam. Specifically, it seeks to address the following research question: How has the INGO sector changed with increasing globalization in Vietnam after the 1986 doi moi reforms, and what are the national and local challenges to INGOs currently operating in Vietnam? As a case study, this study specifically examines an environmental INGO called Project Gaia, Inc. (PGI) that works in the developing world to replace polluting biomass fuels, with clean-burning, sustainable, alcohol fuels and stoves. Using the theoretical concepts of “dis-embedding” and “re-embedding” this study illuminates the challenges that PGI might face in Vietnam, but also highlights the potential for their approach to create positive impact. Overall, the study shows that in Vietnam, a country where the forces of “dis-embedding” and “re-embedding” interact, there are both challenges to operating an INGO, and great opportunities to form collaborative partnerships for change.


Globalization Studies Senior Thesis