Class Year


Document Type

Student Research Paper

Date of Creation

Fall 2015

Department 1



While attending James Cook University (JCU) in Cairns, Australia and researching Arizona University (UA) in Tucson, Arizona, I noticed differences concerning the inclusion of Indigenous representation within their educational institutions.While UA focuses on academic education and community outreach through external concentration, JCU focuses on positive cultural awareness and acts of reconciliation through internal concentration. The influence of colonization in both the United States and Australia contributed to the presence, or lack, of tribal sovereignty in Indigenous communities therefore effecting federal recognition, reconciliation, and government funding which ultimately impacted the school systems.


This paper was written for the International Bridge Course, Fall 2015, and was funded by the Mellon International Bridge Course Grant.

The International Bridge Course is a unique opportunity for Gettysburg students to engage in a faculty-mentored research project of their own design over a three-semester period. IBC scholars began their research in semester one, carry out continuing or comparative research while studying abroad in semester two, and complete their research and submit their final project in semester three. Credit is awarded in semester three via an independent study. In this way, students, under the continued mentorship of a faculty member, may truly integrate their study abroad experience with the coursework they have taken on campus.