Class Year


Document Type

Student Research Paper

Date of Creation

Fall 2015

Department 1

Women, Gender, and Sexuality Studies


This paper examines the narratives of Two-Spirit Indigenous Americans who have been oppressed by heteropatriarchal norms of colonization. Two-spirit creation stories are explored to show the prevalence and importance of their identities prior to contact with Euro-American settlers and the evolution of violence, exclusion, and marginalization due to colonization.The term "Two-Spirit" is examined as a cultural identity of the Indigenous Americans. Finally, the paper looks at how Two-Spirit scholars are looking to combine Queer Theory with Indigenous Studies to deconstruct colonial heteropatriarchal America.


This paper was written as part of Casey O'Higgins' independent study with Professor Stephanie Sellers, Fall 2015.