Class Year


Document Type

Student Research Paper

Date of Creation

Fall 2018

Department 1

Africana Studies


Since the passage of Title IX in 1972, the number of women playing sports has significantly increased; however, the percentage of women in coaching positions has strikingly declined. Before the passage of Title IX, women occupied more than 90% of the coaching positions in women’s sports. In 2009, women held 21% of all head coaching positions in intercollegiate sports for both men and women’s teams and 43% of the head coaching positions for women’s teams (Miller & Flores, 2011). Between 2000 and 2014, 2,080 new head coaching jobs in women’s athletics have opened up and one-third have been filled by women with men obtaining the remaining two-thirds (Acosta & Carpenter, 2014). It is important to note that these statistics are primarily regarding white women—for black women, coaching opportunities, especially head coaching opportunities, are much more dire. For the women’s basketball Division I 2007-2008 season, black women occupied 10.7% of the head coaching positions (Borland & Bruening, 2010). At the assistant coach level, black women compromise 16.1% of the positions while white women hold 47.9%.


Written for AFS 250: Black Bodies in American Sporting.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.