Class Year


Document Type

Student Research Paper

Date of Creation

Spring 2019

Department 1

Interdisciplinary Studies


This paper examines the work of two contemporary Indigenous Artists, Dwayne Wilcox and Monte Yellow Bird Sr. using Gerald Vizenor's theory of suriviance. I first discuss survivance, drawing on the ways both Vizenor and other scholars have used survivance in their academic works. I then move on to situating ledger art in its historical context, analyzing the ways ledger art has been historically examined and written about. The last two sections of this paper are dedicated to highlighting the ways in which two contemporary Indigenous artists, Dwayne Wilcox and Monte Yellow Bird Sr., have embodied Vizenor’s theory of survivance in their artwork. By analyzing the works of artists Dwayne Wilcox and Monte Yellow Bird Sr. through the lens of survivance, I propose that examining ledger art through survivance gives scholars a nuanced way of understanding both nineteenth century and contemporary ledger art.


Written for IDS 464: Interdisciplinary Studies Capstone.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.