Class Year


Document Type

Student Research Paper

Date of Creation

Fall 2019

Department 1

Health Sciences


In order to create the perfect resistance training program for their athletes, coaches must master the ability to control all variables of training over time in order to maximize physiological responses - this is a concept known as periodization (3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 19, 21, 24, 25, 26).

Periodization was first established in Russia, after the conclusion of the 1956 Olympic games (7, 21). Though simple in its principle and aim, periodization is frequently misunderstood due to the hyper-specific research that surrounds it (3, 4, 7, 8, 10, 15, 21, 23, 25). Over the last five decades, researchers have produced a multitude of studies that look at specific variables of periodization, which this paper will later examine, but many of them prove to be inconclusive due to uncontrollable factors outside of training (3, 4, 7, 8, 13, 14, 19, 21). These uncontrollable factors make it difficult to be absolute in any conclusions surrounding the topic of periodization, though there are a number of considerations that make periodization very valuable (25).

Periodization is of paramount importance when creating resistance training plans due to its role in the manipulation and subsequent control of variables over time (3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 19, 21, 24, 25, 26). Without control of variables, resistance training becomes an aimless and non goal-oriented task (25, 43). In comparison with non-periodized resistance programs, periodized plans prove to be significantly more effective in strength gained, lean mass gained, and percent body fat lost (1, 5, 6, 11, 15, 25). Periodization will likely remain a topic of controversy for a long time to come, as coaches continue to seek the most effective combination and manipulation of training variables at their disposal (23).


Written for HS 311: Neuromuscular Physiology.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.