Class Year


Document Type

Student Research Paper

Date of Creation

Fall 2021

Department 1

Environmental Studies


As millions of students embark on their journey of college, many use different forms of transportation in and around their respective areas. The aim of this study incorporates the analysis of various forms of transportation, as well as each transportation method's marginal greenhouse gas emissions and marginal cost per mile in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Data was collected by testing each mode of transportation on a short trip to the local Walmart. The results show that the two modes of transportation that contributed the least to greenhouse gas emissions were biking and walking. The results for other modes of transportation that constitute the greatest greenhouse gas emissions were the car and rabbit transit (bus service). This study also identifies additional factors that have a positive (significant satisfaction), neutral (modest satisfaction), and negative (unsatisfactory) measurement regarding their overall experience with each transportation method. The research results indicate that biking was overall the best mode of transportation in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania with the e-scooter (electric scooter) having the second best mode of transportation. From an environmental standpoint, e-scooters pose greater risks than modes such as walking and biking because of user demographics and lifecycle emissions from production of e-scooters.


Written for ES 400: Senior Seminar