This study provides a critical examination of the relationship between segment states and nationalist crises through a consideration of Nicaragua's recent history. Nicaragua experienced a nationalist crisis from 1981 to the mid-1980s. That crisis ended with the creation of two autonomous regions on the Atlantic Coast. Although relations between the common state and the new segment state proved difficult over the next few years, the new arrangement held for two decades. Roughly around 2007, however, a new nation-state crisis emerged in Nicaragua. Taking advantage of the fact that Nicaragua provides an opportunity to compare two nation-state crises across time, this study asks whether the country's pattern of nation-state crisis, creation of a segment state, and emergence of a second nationalist crisis may mean that segment states are endogenous to nation-state crises. In addition, it raises the question of whether, if fully followed through, autonomy arrangements may prove stabilizing under certain contexts.
Hartzell, Caroline. “Nation-state Crises in the Absence and Presence of Segment States: The Case of Nicaragua.” Ethnopolitics 13.1 (2014): 28-47. Hartzell, Caroline. "Nation-State Crises in the Presence and Absence of Segment States: The Case of Nicaragua." Eds. Matthew Hoddie and Caroline A. Hartzell. Segment States in the Developing World: Conflict's Cause or Cure? (London: Routledge, 2014).