Faculty publications from the Psychology Department at Gettysburg College.




Reflections from Pioneering Women in Psychology, Jamila Bookwala and Nicky J. Newton

Investigating Individual Differences in Metaphor Use and Its Outcomes: Research Questions, Measurement, and Findings, Adam K. Fetterman, Katherine French, and Brian P. Meier

Metaphors for God: God is High, Light, and Human in Implicit Tasks, Brian P. Meier and Adam K. Fetterman

Evaluation of the Moderated-Expression and Differential Configuration Hypotheses in the Context of "Successful" or "Noncriminal" Psychopathy, Martin Sellbom, Jaime L. Anderson, Brandee E. Goodwin, Rebecca M. Kastner, Rachel C. Rock, Alexandria K. Johnson, Brian P. Meier, and Randall T. Salekin

What is the “Opposite” of a Value? A Lexical Investigation into the Structure of Generally Undesirable Goal Content, Benjamin M. Wilkowski, Laverl Z. Williamson, Emilio Rivera, Adam K. Fetterman, and Brian P. Meier


Professional Versus Self-Applied Makeup: Do Makeup Artists Add Value?, Carlota Batres, Aurélie Porcheron, Sandra Courrèges, and Richard Russell

Trait Mindfulness is Negatively Associated With Distress Related to COVID-19, Amanda J. Dillard and Brian P. Meier


What Shall We Call God? An Exploration of Metaphors Coded From Descriptions of God From A Large U.S. Undergraduate Sample, Adam K. Fetterman, Nicholas D. Evans, Julie J. Exline, and Brian P. Meier

Leveraging Individual Differences To Understand Grounded Procedures, Adam K. Fetterman, Michael D. Robinson, and Brian P. Meier

Effects of Affirming Values on Self-Compassion and Mental Health Treatment Stigma., Jill Glazer, Tommi Oleson, Cindy Campoverde, and Kathy R. Berenson


Individual Differences in Social Play Behaviour Predict Alcohol Intake and Control Over Alcohol Seeking in Rats, Heidi M. B. Lesscher, E. J. Marijke Achterberg, Stephen M. Siviy, and Louk J. M. J. Vanderschuren

Social Psychology and COVID-19: What the Field Can Tell Us About Behavior in a Pandemic, Brian P. Meier, Corey L. Cook, and Kate Faasse


Predictors of the Intention to Receive a SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine, Brian P. Meier, Amanda J. Dillard, and Courtney M. Lappas

Be Responsible? Priming “Responsibility” and the Bystander Effect in a Field Setting, Brian P. Meier, Michael B. Kitchens, Danielle E. Kupersmith, Kristie E. Houck, Nevada S. Keyton, Sydney E. Petrasic, Ethan H. Schultz, Sierra S. Sheriff, Mathew M. Simmers, John O. Underwood, Sara Walker, and Daymond N. Zweizig

Embodied Perspectives on Personality, Michael D. Robinson, Adam K. Fetterman, Brian P. Meier, Michelle R. Persich, and Michael R. Waters



Examining the Influence of Cosmetics on Jury Decisions., Carlota Batres and Richard Russell

Sensitivity to Reward and Punishment in Borderline and Avoidant Personality Disorders, Kathy R. Berenson, Sarah M. Van De Weet, Stella Nicalaou, Cindy Campoverde, Eshkol Rafaeli, and Geraldine Downey

Does Any Mother’s Body Odor Stimulate Interest in Mother’s Face in 4‐Month‐Old Infants?, Karine Durand, Benoist Schaal, Nathalie Goubet, David J. Lewkowicz, and Jean-Yves Baudouin



Examining the ‘Cosmetics Placebo Effect’, Carlota Batres, Sarah S. Kramer, Caroline G. DeAngelis, and Richard Russell


Cosmetics Increase Skin Evenness: Evidence from Perceptual and Physical Measures, Carlota Batres, Aurélie Porcheron, Julie Latreille, Magalie Roche, Frédérique Morizot, and Richard Russell


The Path to God is Through the Heart: Metaphoric Self-location as a Predictor of Religiosity, Adam K. Fetterman, Jacob Juhl, Brian P. Meier, Andrew Abeyta, Clay Routledge, and Michael D. Robinson

How the Body Shapes Knowledge: Empirical Support for Embodied Cognition, Rebecca Fincher-Kiefer


I Saw That: Being Observed Reduces Race-based Shoot Decisions, Sarah S. Kramer, Kaitlin M. Lewin, Allison S. Romano, and Brian P. Meier


Naturally Better? A Review of the Natural‐is‐Better Bias, Brian P. Meier, Amanda J. Dillard, and Courtney M. Lappas


A Behavioral Confirmation and Reduction of the Natural versus Synthetic Drug Bias, Brian P. Meier, Amanda J. Dillard, Eric S. Osorio, and Courtney M. Lappas

A Social Cognitive Analysis of Antagonism and Reactive Aggression, Michael D. Robinson, Benjamin M. Wilkowski, and Brian P. Meier


A Role for Contrast Gain Control in Skin Appearance, Richard Russell, Carlota Batres, Alex L. Jones, and Aurélie Porcheron


Basal Ganglia Involvement in the Playfulness of Juvenile Rats, Stephen M. Siviy


Lexical Derivation of the PINT Taxonomy of Goals: Prominence, Inclusiveness, Negativity Prevention, and Tradition, Benjamin M. Wilkowski, Adam Fetterman, Shaun K. Lappi, Laverl Z. Williamson, Elizabeth Ferguson Leki, Emilio Rivera, and Brian P. Meier



Evidence That the Hormonal Contraceptive Pill Is Associated With Cosmetic Habits, Carlota Batres, Aurélie Porcheron, Gwenaël Kaminski, Sandra Courrèges, Frédérique Morizot, and Richard Russell


Age, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status Differences in Explicit and Implicit Beliefs About Effortlessly Perfect Self-Presentation, Kathy R. Berenson, Tess M. Anderson, Jill Glazer, Melissa P. Menna, and Huilin Xu


Identification of Mental States and Interpersonal Functioning in Borderline Personality Disorder, Kathy R. Berenson, Cara L. Dochat, Christiana G. Martin, Xiao Yang, Eshkol Rafaeli, and Geraldine Downey


Borderline Personality Features and Integration of Positive and Negative Thoughts About Significant Others, Kathy R. Berenson, Jessica C. Johnson, Fanghui Zhao, Olga U.A. Nynaes, and Tamir Goren


Attributions for Rejection and Acceptance in Young Adults with Borderline and Avoidant Personality Features, Kathy R. Berenson, Olga U.A. Nynaes, Emily S. Wakschal, Laura M. Kapner, and Erin C. Sweeney


Do We See Eye to Eye? Moderators of Correspondence Between Student and Faculty Evaluations of Day-to-Day Teaching, Kathleen M. Cain, Benjamin M. Wilkowski, Christopher P. Barlett, Colleen D. Boyle, and Brian P. Meier


What You Don't Know About Motivational Laptop Stickers, Cindy J. Campoverde-Reinoso, Stella Nicolaou, and Kathy R. Berenson

Seeing Odors in Color: Cross-Modal Associations in Children and Adults from Two Cultural Environments, Nathalie Goubet, Karine Durand, Benoist Schaal, and Daniel D. McCall


A Weight–Related Growth Mindset Increases Negative Attitudes Towards Obese People, Nic Hooper, Alison Crumpton, Michael D. Robinson, and Brian P. Meier


Makeup Changes the Apparent Size of Facial Features, Alex L. Jones, Aurélie Porcheron, and Richard Russell


Development and Validation of the Single Item Trait Empathy Scale (SITES), Sara Konrath, Brian P. Meier, and Brad J. Bushman

Differential Effects of Makeup on Perceived Age, Richard Russell, Carlota Batres, Sandra Courrèges, Gwenaël Kaminski, Frédérique Soppelsa, Frédérique Morizot, and Aurélie Porcheron


Effects of Neonatal Handling on Play and Anxiety in F344 and Lewis Rats, Stephen M. Siviy


Evidence that Makeup is a False Signal of Sociosexuality, Carlota Batres, Richard Russell, Jeffry A. Simpson, Lorne Campbell, Alison M. Hansen, and Lee Cronk

Managing Your Research Data and Documentation, Kathy R. Berenson


Age Differences in the Desirability of Narcissism, Kathy R. Berenson, William D. Ellison, and Rachel L. Clasing

Dispositional Properties of Metaphor: The Predictive Power of the Sweet Taste Metaphor for Trait and Daily Prosociality, Adam K. Fetterman, Brian P. Meier, and Michael D. Robinson


Self-Compassion, Self-Injury, and Pain, Wesley Ellen Gregory, Jillian V. Glazer, and Kathy R. Berenson

Mindfulness Reduces the Correspondence Bias, Timothy Hopthrow, Nic Hooper, Lynsey Mahmood, Brian P. Meier, and Ulrich W. Weger


Positive Facial Affect Looks Healthy, Alex L. Jones, Carlota Batres, Aurélie Porcheron, Jennifer R. Sweda, Frédérique Morizot, and Richard Russell


The Sweet Life: The Effect of Mindful Chocolate Consumption on Mood, Brian P. Meier, Sabrina W. Noll, and Oluwatobi J. Molokwu


Facial Contrast Is a Cross-Cultural Cue for Perceiving Age, Aurélie Porcheron, Emmanuelle Mauger, Frédérique Soppelsa, Yuli Liu, Liezhong Ge, Olivier Pascalis, Richard Russell, and Frédérique Morizot

The Illusion of Sex, Richard Russell

Facial Contrast Declines with Age but Remains Sexually Dimorphic Throughout Adulthood, Richard Russell, Sarah S. Kramer, and Alex L. Jones

Effects of Cross-Fostering on Play and Anxiety in Juvenile Fischer 344 and Lewis Rats, Stephen M. Siviy, Samantha R. Eck, Lana S. McDowell, and Jennifer A. Soroka

Affective Instability as a Clinical Feature of Avoidant Personality Disorder, Avigal Snir, Eran Bar-Kalifa, Kathy R. Berenson, Geraldine Downey, and Eshkol Rafaeli

Gender Asymmetry in the Construction of American National Identity, Laura Van Berkel, Ludwin E. Molina, and Sahana Mukherjee


Seeing Things Differently: An Experimental Investigation of Social Cognition and Interpersonal Behavior in Anorexia nervosa, Suman Ambwani, Kathy R. Berenson, Lea Simms, Amanda Li, Freya Corfield, and Janet Treasure


Impulsivity, Rejection Sensitivity, and Reactions to Stressors in Borderline Personality Disorder, Kathy R. Berenson, Wesley Ellen Gregory, Erin Glaser, Aliza Romirowsky, Eshkol Rafaeli, Xiao Yang, and Geraldine Downey

Coloration in Different Areas of Facial Skin is a Cue to Health: The Role of Cheek Redness and Periorbital Luminance in Health Perception, Alex L. Jones, Aurélie Porcheron, Jennifer R. Sweda, Frederique Morizot, and Richard Russell


Bah Humbug: Unexpected Christmas Cards and the Reciprocity Norm, Brian P. Meier


The Influence of Safety, Efficacy, and Medical Condition Severity on Natural v. Synthetic Drug Preference, Brian P. Meier and Courtney M. Lappas

Sex Differences in the Perceived Dominance and Prestige of Women With and Without Cosmetics, Viktoria R. Mileva, Alex L. Jones, Richard Russell, and Anthony C. Little

Rough-and-Tumble Play as a Window on Animal Communication, Elisabetta Palagi, Gordon M. Burghardt, Barbara Smuts, Giada Cordoni, Stefania Dall'Olio, Hillary N. Fouts, Milada Řeháková-Petrů, Stephen M. Siviy, and Sergio M. Pellis

Facial Contrast is a Cue for Perceiving Health from the Face, Richard Russell, Aurélie Porcheron, Jennifer R. Sweda, Alex L. Jones, Emmanuelle Mauger, and Frederique Morizot


A Brain Motivated to Play: Insights into the Neurobiology of Playfulness, Stephen M. Siviy



Rejection Sensitivity, Perceived Power, and HIV Risk in the Relationships of Low-Income Urban Women, Kathy R. Berenson, Christine Paprocki, Marget Thomas Fishman, Devika Bhushan, Nabila El-Bassel, and Geraldine Downey


The Myth of the Angry Atheist, Brian P. Meier, Adam Fetterman, Michael D. Robinson, and Courtney M. Lappas


Museum Spaces as Psychological Affordances: Representations of Immigration History and National Identity, Sahana Mukherjee, Phia S. Salter, and Ludwin E. Molina

Handbook of Mindfulness and Self-Regulation, Brian D. Ostafin, Michael D. Robinson, and Brian P. Meier


Effects of Amphetamine on Striatal Dopamine Release, Open-Field Activity, and Play in Fischer 344 and Sprague–Dawley Rats, Stephen M. Siviy, Lana S. McDowell, Samantha R. Eck, Alexandra Turano, Garnik Akopian, and John P. Walsh


Explicit and Inferred Motives for Nonsuicidal Self-Injurious Acts and Urges in Borderline and Avoidant Personality Disorders, Avigal Snir, Eshkol Rafaeli, Reuma Gadassi, Kathy R. Berenson, and Geraldine Downey


Amphetamine and Cocaine Suppresses Social Play Behavior in Rats Through Distinct Mechanisms, E.J. Marijke Achterberg, Viviana Trezza, Stephen M. Siviy, Laurens Schrama, Anton N.M. Schoffelmeer, and Louk J.M.J. Vanderschuren


Out of the Frying Pan, Into the Fire: Mixed Affective Reactions to Social Proximity in Borderline and Avoidant Personality Disorders in Daily Life, Reuma Gadassi, Avigal Snir, Kathy R. Berenson, Geraldine Downey, and Eshkol Rafaeli


Mindful Eating: Trait and State Mindfulness Predict Healthier Eating Behavior, Christian H. Jordan, Wan Wang, Linda R. Donatoni, and Brian P. Meier


Development and Validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS), Sara Konrath, Brian P. Meier, and Brad J. Bushman

Sclera Color Changes with Age and is a Cue for Perceiving Age, Health, and Beauty, Richard Russell, Jennifer R. Sweda, Aurélie Porcheron, and Emmanuelle Mauger


Hope, Ethnic Pride, and Academic Achievement: Positive Psychology and Latino Youth, Derik K. Yager-Elorriaga, Kathy R. Berenson, and Paula McWhirter


Reviewing, Categorizing, and Analyzing the Literature on Black-White Mean Differences for Predictors of Job Performance: Verifying Some Perceptions and Updating/Correcting Others, Philip Bobko and Philip Roth


Eye-Catching Odors: Olfaction Elicits Sustained Gazing to Faces and Eyes in 4-Month-Old Infants, Karine Durand, Jean-Yves Baudouin, David J. Lewkowicz, Nathalie Goubet, and Benoist Schaal

Semantic Context Facilitates Odor Identification in Children and Adults, Nathalie Goubet, Daniel D. McCall, Jennifer K. Ducz, and Megan L. Bingham

The Power of Metaphor: Examining its Influence on Social Life, Mark J. Landau, Michael D. Robinson, and Brian P. Meier


Reducing the Tendency to Aggress: Insights from Social and Personality Psychology, Brian P. Meier and Benjamin M. Wilkowski


Aspects of Facial Contrast Decrease with Age and Are Cues for Age Perception, Aurelie Porcheron, Emmanuelle Mauger, and Richard Russell


Emotion Differentiation as a Protective Factor Against Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Borderline Personality Disorder, Landon F. Zaki, Karin G. Coifman, Eshkol Rafaeli, Kathy R. Berenson, and Geraldine Downey


From Negative to Positive and Back Again: Polarized Affective and Relational Experience in Borderline Personality Disorder, Karin G. Coifman, Kathy R. Berenson, Eshkol Rafaeli, and Geraldine Downey

Anger as Seeing Red: Evidence for a Perceptual Association, Adam Fetterman, Michael D. Robinson, and Brian P. Meier


Color in Context: Psychological Context Moderates the Influence of Red on Approach- and Avoidance-Motivated Behavior, Brian P. Meier, Paul R. D'Agostino, Andrew J. Elliott, Markus A. Meier, and Benjamin M. Wilkowski

Sweet Taste Preferences and Experiences Predict Prosocial Inferences, Personalities, and Behaviors, Brian P. Meier, Miles Riemer-Peltz, Sara K. Moeller, and Michael D. Robinson

Embodiment in Social Psychology, Brian P. Meier, Simone S. Schnall, Norbert Schwarz, and John A. Bargh

Motivational Versus Metabolic Effects of Carbohydrates on Self-Control, Daniel C. Molden, Chin Ming Hui, Abigail A. Scholer, Brian P. Meier, Eric E. Noreen, Paul R. D'Agostino, and Valerie A. Martin

Work-Family Balance, Well-Being, and Organizational Outcomes: Investigating Actual Versus Desired Work/Family Time Discrepancies, Heather N. Odle-Dusseau, Thomas W. Britt, and Philip Bobko

L'atteinte de l‘objet chez l’enfant né prematuré / Reaching for objects in prematurely born infants, Laura P. O’Sullivan, Nathalie Goubet, and Neil E. Berthier

Counting to Ten Milliseconds: Low Anger but not High Anger, Individuals Pause Following Negative Evaluations, Michael D. Robinson, Benjamin M. Wilkowski, Brian P. Meier, Sara K. Moeller, and Adam Fetterman

A Meta-Analysis of Gender Group Differences for Measures of Job Performance in Field Studies, Philip Roth, Kristen Purvis, and Philip Bobko

Cosmetics Use: Psychological Perspectives, Richard Russell

Developmental Prosopagnosia and Super-Recognition: No Special Role for Surface Reflectance Processing, Richard Russell, Garga Chatterjee, and Ken Nakayama

Brighten Up: Smiles Facilitate Perceptual Judgment of Facial Lightness, Hyunjin Song, Andrew J. Vonasch, Brian P. Meier, and John A. Bargh

Gender and Age Effects Interact in Preschoolers' Help-Seeking: Evidence for Differential Responses to Changes in Task Difficulty, R. Bruce Thompson, Thomas Cothran, and Daniel D. McCall

Mindful Maths: Reducing the Impact of Stereotype Threat through Mindfulness Exercise, Ulrich W. Weger, Nic Hooper, Brian P. Meier, and Timothy Hopthrow


The Effects of Changing Power and Influence Tactics on Trust in the Supervisor: A Longitudinal Field Study, Roger C. Mayer, Philip Bobko, James H. Davis, and Mark B. Gavin